Warren G. Harding: The American Presidents Series: The 29th President, 1921-1923
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His presidential campaign slogan, "America's present need is not heroics but healing, not nostrums but normalcy," gave voice to a public exhausted by the intense politics following World War I. Once elected, he pushed for legislation limiting the number of immigrants; set high tariffs to relieve the farm crisis after the war; persuaded Congress to adopt unified federal budget creation; and reduced income taxes and the national debt, before dying unexpectedly in In this wise and compelling biography, John W.
Dean—no stranger to controversy himself—recovers the truths and explodes the myths surrounding our twenty-ninth president's tarnished legacy. Dean, who survived Nixon's scandalous presidency, attempts to rehab another President who was afflicted by scandal.
Harding and Buchanan usually are considered are worse two presidents. Dean served as Richard Nixon's White House counsel for a thousand days. The naval agreement was limited to battleships and to some extent aircraft carriers, and in the end did not prevent rearmament. Nevertheless, Harding and Hughes were widely applauded in the press for their work. Congress had authorized their disposal in , but the Senate would not confirm Wilson's nominees to the Shipping Board.
Harding appointed Albert Lasker as its chairman; the advertising executive undertook to run the fleet as profitably as possible until it could be sold. Most ships proved impossible to sell at anything approaching the government's cost. Lasker recommended a large subsidy to the merchant marine to enable the sales, and Harding repeatedly urged Congress to enact it. Unpopular in the Midwest, the bill passed the House, but was defeated by a filibuster in the Senate, and most government ships were eventually scrapped.
Intervention in Latin America had been a minor campaign issue; Harding spoke against Wilson's decision to send U. Once Harding was sworn in, Hughes worked to improve relations with Latin American countries who were wary of the American use of the Monroe Doctrine to justify intervention; at the time of Harding's inauguration, the U.
The troops stationed in Cuba to protect American interests were withdrawn in ; U. Both Hughes and Fall opposed recognition; Hughes instead sent a draft treaty to the Mexicans in May , which included pledges to reimburse Americans for losses in Mexico since the revolution there.
This had its effect, and by mid, Fall was less influential than he had been, lessening the resistance to recognition. The two presidents appointed commissioners to reach a deal, and the U. When Harding took office on March 4, , the nation was in the midst of a postwar economic decline. When Harding addressed the joint session the following day, he urged the reduction of income taxes raised during the war , an increase in tariffs on agricultural goods to protect the American farmer, as well as more wide-ranging reforms, such as support for highways, aviation, and radio.
An act authorizing a Bureau of the Budget followed on June 10; Harding appointed Charles Dawes as bureau director with a mandate to cut expenditures. Treasury Secretary Mellon also recommended to Congress that income tax rates be cut. He asked that the excess profits tax on corporations be abolished.
The House Ways and Means Committee endorsed Mellon's proposals, but some congressmen, who wanted to raise tax rates on corporations, fought the measure. Harding was unsure what side to endorse, telling a friend, "I can't make a damn thing out of this tax problem. I listen to one side, and they seem right, and then—God! In the Senate, the tax bill became entangled in efforts to vote World War I veterans a soldier's bonus. Frustrated by the delays, on July 12, Harding appeared before the Senate to urge it to pass the tax legislation without the bonus.
It was not until November that the revenue bill finally passed, with higher rates than Mellon had proposed. Harding had opposed payment of a bonus to veterans, arguing in his Senate address that much was already being done for them by a grateful nation, and that the bill would "break down our Treasury, from which so much is later on to be expected. A bill providing a bonus, without a means of funding it, was passed by both houses in September Harding vetoed it, and the veto was narrowly sustained.
A bonus , not payable in cash, was voted to soldiers despite Coolidge's veto in In his first annual message to Congress , Harding sought the power to adjust tariff rates. The passage of the tariff bill in the Senate, and in conference committee became a feeding frenzy of lobbyist interests.
It wrought havoc in international commerce and made the repayment of war debts more difficult. Mellon ordered a study that demonstrated historically that, as income tax rates were increased, money was driven underground or abroad. He concluded that lower rates would increase tax revenues.
Taxes were cut for lower incomes starting in The lower rates substantially increased the money flowing to the treasury. They also pushed massive deregulation and federal spending as a share of GDP fell from 6. By late , the economy began to turn around. The misery index, which is a combination of unemployment and inflation, had its sharpest decline in U.
Libertarian historians Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen argue that, "Mellon's tax policies set the stage for the most amazing growth yet seen in America's already impressive economy. The s were a time of modernization for America.
Warren G. Harding
Use of electricity became increasingly common. Mass production of the motor car stimulated other industries, as well, such as highway construction, rubber, steel, and building, as hotels were erected to accommodate the tourists venturing upon the roads. This economic boost helped bring the nation out of the recession. Harding had urged regulation of radio broadcasting in his April speech to Congress. Both Harding and Hoover realized something more than an agreement was needed, but Congress was slow to act, not imposing radio regulation until Harding also wished to promote aviation, and Hoover again took the lead, convening a national conference on commercial aviation.
The discussions focused on safety matters, inspection of airplanes, and licensing of pilots. Harding again promoted legislation but nothing was done until , when the Air Commerce Act created the Bureau of Aeronautics within Hoover's Commerce Department. Harding's attitude toward business was that government should aid it as much as possible. Harding warned in his opening address that no federal money would be available. No important legislation came as a result, though some public works projects were accelerated. Within broad limits, Harding allowed each cabinet secretary to run his department as he saw fit.
This was consistent with Hoover's view that the private sector should take the lead in managing the economy. Widespread strikes marked , as labor sought redress for falling wages and increased unemployment. In April, , coal miners, led by John L. Lewis , struck over wage cuts. Mining executives argued that the industry was seeing hard times; Lewis accused them of trying to break the union.
As the strike became protracted, Harding offered compromise to settle it. As Harding proposed, the miners agreed to return to work, and Congress created a commission to look into their grievances. On July 1, , , railroad workers went on strike.
Harding proposed a settlement that made some concessions, but management objected. Wilkerson to issue a sweeping injunction to break the strike. Although there was public support for the Wilkerson injunction, Harding felt it went too far, and had Daugherty and Wilkerson amend it. The injunction succeeded in ending the strike; however, tensions remained high between railroad workers and management for years. By , the eight-hour day had become common in American industry. One exception was in steel mills , where workers labored through a twelve-hour workday, seven days a week. Hoover considered this practice barbaric and got Harding to convene a conference of steel manufacturers with a view to ending the system.
The conference established a committee under the leadership of U. Steel chairman Elbert Gary , which in early recommended against ending the practice. Harding sent a letter to Gary deploring the result, which was printed in the press, and public outcry caused the manufacturers to reverse themselves and standardize the eight-hour day. Although Harding's first address to Congress called for passage of anti-lynching legislation,  he initially seemed inclined to do no more for African Americans than Republican presidents of the recent past had; he asked Cabinet officers to find places for blacks in their departments.
Sinclair suggested that the fact that Harding received two-fifths of the Southern vote in led him to see political opportunity for his party in the Solid South. On October 26, , Harding gave a speech in Birmingham, Alabama , to a segregated audience of 20, whites and 10, blacks. Harding, while stating that the social and racial differences between whites and blacks could not be bridged, urged equal political rights for the African American.
Many African Americans at that time voted Republican, especially in the Democratic South, and Harding stated he did not mind seeing that support end if the result was a strong two-party system in the South. He was willing to see literacy tests for voting continue, if applied fairly to white and black. Harding had spoken out against lynching in his April speech before Congress, and supported Congressman Leonidas Dyer 's federal anti-lynching bill , which passed the House of Representatives in January Murray noted that it was hastened to its end by Harding's desire to have the ship subsidy bill considered.
With the public suspicious of immigrants, especially those who might be socialists or communists , Congress passed the Per Centum Act of , signed by Harding on May 19, , as a quick means of restricting immigration. This would, in practice, not restrict immigration from Ireland and Germany, but would bar many Italians and eastern European Jews. Harding's Socialist opponent in the election, Eugene Debs , was serving a ten-year sentence in the Atlanta Penitentiary for speaking against the war.
Wilson had refused to pardon him before leaving office. Daugherty met with Debs, and was deeply impressed. There was opposition from veterans, including the American Legion , and also from Florence Harding. The president did not feel he could release Debs until the war was officially over, but once the peace treaties were signed, commuted Debs' sentence on December 23, Harding released 23 other war opponents at the same time as Debs, and continued to review cases and release political prisoners throughout his presidency.
Harding defended his prisoner releases as necessary to return the nation to normalcy. Harding appointed four justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. When Chief Justice Edward Douglass White died in May , Harding was unsure whether to appoint former president Taft or former Utah senator George Sutherland —he had promised seats on the court to both men.
After briefly considering awaiting another vacancy and appointing them both, he chose Taft as Chief Justice. Sutherland was appointed to the court in , to be followed by two other economic conservatives, Pierce Butler and Edward Terry Sanford , in Entering the midterm congressional election campaign, Harding and the Republicans had followed through on many of their campaign promises. But some of the fulfilled pledges, like cutting taxes for the well-off, did not appeal to the electorate.
From Republicans elected to the House in , the new 68th Congress would see that party fall to a — majority. In the Senate, the Republicans lost eight seats, and had 51 of 96 senators in the new Congress, which Harding did not survive to meet. A month after the election, the lame-duck session of the old 67th Congress met. Harding had come to believe that his early view of the presidency—that it should propose policies, but leave whether to adopt them to Congress—was not enough, and he lobbied Congress, although in vain, to get his ship subsidy bill through.
The economy was improving, and the programs of Harding's more able Cabinet members, such as Hughes, Mellon and Hoover, were showing results. Most Republicans realized that there was no practical alternative to supporting Harding in In the first half of , Harding did two acts that were later said to indicate foreknowledge of death: By , he was aware he had a heart condition. Stress caused by the presidency and by Florence Harding's ill-health she had a chronic kidney condition debilitated him, and he never really recovered from an episode of influenza in January After that, Harding, an avid golfer, had difficulty completing a round.
In June , Ohio Senator Willis met with Harding, but brought to the president's attention only two of the five items he intended to discuss. When asked why, Willis responded, "Warren seemed so tired. In June , Harding set out on a journey, which he dubbed the "Voyage of Understanding. Harding's political advisers had given him a physically demanding schedule, even though the president had ordered it cut back. In Denver, he spoke on Prohibition, and continued west making a series of speeches not matched by any president until Franklin Roosevelt.
Harding had become a supporter of the World Court , and wanted the U. In addition to making speeches, he visited Yellowstone and Zion National Parks ,  and dedicated a monument on the Oregon Trail at a celebration organized by venerable pioneer Ezra Meeker and others. The first president to visit Alaska, he spent hours watching the dramatic landscapes from the deck of the Henderson.
The party was to return to Seward by the Richardson Trail , but due to Harding's fatigue, it went by train. He was welcomed by the Premier of British Columbia and the Mayor of Vancouver, and spoke to a crowd of over 50, Two years after his death, a memorial to Harding was unveiled in Stanley Park. After resting, he played the 17th and 18th holes so it would appear he had completed the round. He was not successful in hiding his exhaustion; one reporter deemed him so tired, a rest of mere days would not be sufficient to refresh him.
In Seattle the next day, Harding kept up his busy schedule, giving a speech to 25, people at the stadium at the University of Washington. In the final speech he gave, Harding predicted statehood for Alaska. Harding went to bed early on the evening of July 27, , a few hours after giving his final speech at the University of Washington. Later that night, he called for his physician, Charles E.
Sawyer , complaining of pain in the upper abdomen. Sawyer thought it was a recurrence of a dietary upset, but Dr.
Warren G. Harding: The American Presidents Series: The 29th President, 1921-1923
Boone suspected a heart problem. The next day, as the train rushed to San Francisco, Harding felt better, and when they arrived on the morning of July 29, , he insisted on walking from the train to the car, which rushed him to the Palace Hotel   where he suffered a relapse. Doctors found that not only was Harding's heart causing problems, but he also had pneumonia , a serious matter in the days before effective antibiotics. Harding was then confined to bed rest in his hotel room for the remainder of the time.
When treated with caffeine and digitalis , Harding seemed to improve. He was pleased when his planned foreign policy address advocating membership in the World Court was released to the press by Hoover and received a favorable reception. By the afternoon of August 2, , doctors allowed Harding to sit up in bed. That evening, at about 7: As Florence Harding resumed, her husband suddenly twisted convulsively and collapsed back in his bed, and she raced to get the doctors.
They attempted stimulants, but were unable to revive him, and President Harding was pronounced dead. He was 57 years old. Harding's death came as a great shock to the nation. The president was liked and admired, and the press and public had followed his illness closely, and been reassured by his apparent recovery. Nine million people lined the tracks as Harding's body was taken from San Francisco to Washington, D.
In Marion, the body of Warren Harding was placed on a horse-drawn hearse , which was followed by President Coolidge and Chief Justice Taft, then by Harding's widow and father. Harding appointed a number of friends and acquaintances to federal positions. Some served competently, such as Charles E. Sawyer , the Hardings' personal physician from Marion who attended to them in the White House.
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Sawyer alerted Harding to the Veterans' Bureau scandal. Others proved ineffective in office, such as Daniel R. Crissinger , a Marion lawyer whom Harding made Comptroller of the Currency and later a governor of the Federal Reserve Board ; or Harding's old friend, Director of the Mint Frank Scobey, who Trani and Wilson noted "did little damage during his tenure".
Harding's brother-in-law Heber H. Votaw, superintendent of federal prisons, was unable to root out the drug trade from within the facilities. Most of the scandals that have marred the reputation of Harding's administration did not emerge until after his death. The Veterans' Bureau scandal was known to Harding in January but, according to Trani and Wilson, "the president's handling of it did him little credit".
Forbes , to flee to Europe, though he later returned and served prison time. The president ordered Daugherty to get Smith out of Washington and removed his name from the upcoming presidential trip to Alaska. Smith committed suicide on May 30, Hoover accompanied Harding on the Western trip and later wrote that Harding asked then what Hoover would do if he knew of some great scandal, whether to publicize it or bury it. Hoover replied that Harding should publish and get credit for integrity, and asked for details.
Harding stated that it had to do with Smith but, when Hoover enquired as to Daugherty's possible involvement, Harding refused to answer. The scandal which has likely done the greatest damage to Harding's reputation is Teapot Dome. Like most of the administration's scandals, it came to public light after Harding's death, and he was not aware of the illegal aspects.
Teapot Dome involved an oil reserve in Wyoming which was one of three set aside for the use of the Navy in a national emergency. There was a longstanding argument that the reserves should be developed; Wilson's first Interior Secretary Franklin Knight Lane was an advocate of this position. When the Harding administration took office, Interior Secretary Fall took up Lane's argument and Harding signed an executive order in May transferring the reserves from the Navy Department to Interior. This was done with the consent of Navy Secretary Edwin C. The Interior Department announced in July that Edward Doheny had been awarded a lease to drill along the edges of naval reserve Elk Hills in California.
The announcement attracted little controversy, as the oil would have been lost to wells on adjacent private land. The Interior Department refused to provide documentation, so he secured the passage of a Senate resolution compelling disclosure. The department sent a copy of the lease granting drilling rights to Harry Sinclair 's Mammoth Oil Company , along with a statement that there had been no competitive bidding because military preparedness was involved—Mammoth was to build oil tanks for the Navy as part of the deal. This satisfied some people, but some conservationists, such as Gifford Pinchot , Harry A.
Slattery , and others, pushed for a full investigation into Fall and his activities. They got Wisconsin Senator Robert M. Walsh to lead the investigation, and Walsh read through the truckload of material provided by the Interior Department through into , including a letter from Harding stating that the transfer and leases had been with his knowledge and approval.
Hearings into Teapot Dome began in October , two months after Harding's death. Fall had left office earlier that year, but he denied receiving any money from Sinclair or Doheny; Sinclair agreed. The following month, Walsh learned that Fall had spent lavishly on expanding and improving his New Mexico ranch. Fall reappeared and stated that the money had come as a loan from Harding's friend and The Washington Post publisher Edward B.
McLean , but McLean denied it when he testified. Doheny told the committee that he had given Fall the money in cash as a personal loan out of regard for their past association, but Fall invoked the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination when he was compelled to appear again, rather than answer questions. Doheny was brought to trial before a jury in April for giving the bribe Fall had been convicted of accepting, but he was acquitted.
Harding's appointment of Harry M. Daugherty as Attorney General received more criticism than any other. Daugherty's Ohio lobbying and back room maneuvers were not considered to qualify him for his office.
Warren G. Harding : The American Presidents Series: The 29th President, - licapedu.tk
Democratic Montana Senator Burton K. Wheeler was on the investigating committee and assumed the role of prosecutor when hearings began on March 12, Caskey, to accept payoffs from alcohol bootleggers to secure either immunity from prosecution or the release of liquor from government warehouses. Coolidge requested Daugherty's resignation when the Attorney General indicated that he would not allow Wheeler's committee access to Justice Department records, and Daugherty complied on March 28, Smith and Miller received a payoff of almost half a million dollars for getting a German-owned firm, the American Metal Company, released to new U.
Records relating to that account were destroyed by Daugherty and his brother. Miller and Daugherty were indicted for defrauding the government. The first trial, in September , resulted in a hung jury ; at the second, early in , Miller was convicted and served prison time, but the jury again hung as to Daugherty. Though charges against Daugherty were then dropped, and he was never convicted of any offense, his refusal to take the stand in his own defense devastated what was left of his reputation.
The former Attorney General remained defiant, blaming his troubles on his enemies in the labor movement and on the Communists, and wrote that he had "done nothing that prevents my looking the whole world in the face". Forbes , the energetic director of the Veterans' Bureau, sought to consolidate control of veterans' hospitals and their construction in his bureau. At the start of Harding's presidency, this power was vested in the Treasury Department.
The politically-powerful American Legion backed Forbes and denigrated those who opposed him, like Secretary Mellon, and in April , Harding agreed to transfer control to the Veterans' Bureau. Louis, which wanted to construct the hospitals. The two men became close, and Mortimer paid for Forbes' travels through the West, looking at potential hospital sites for the wounded World War I veterans. Forbes was also friendly with Charles F.
Some of the money went to the bureau's chief counsel, Charles F. Intent on making more money, Forbes in November began selling valuable hospital supplies under his control in large warehouses at the Perryville Depot in Maryland. The check on Forbes' authority at Perryville was Dr. Sawyer, Harding's physician and chairman of the Federal Hospitalization Board.
Harding did not want an open scandal and allowed Forbes to flee to Europe, from where he resigned on February 15, In spite of Harding's efforts, gossip about Forbes' activities resulted in the Senate ordering an investigation two weeks later,  and in mid-March, Cramer committed suicide. Mortimer was willing to tell all, as Forbes had had an affair with his wife which also broke up the Forbes marriage. The construction executive was the star witness at the hearings in late , after Harding's death.
Forbes returned from Europe to testify, but convinced few, and in , he and John W. Thompson, of Thompson—Black, were tried in Chicago for conspiracy to defraud the government. Both were convicted and sentenced to two years in prison. Forbes began to serve his sentence in ; Thompson, who had a bad heart, died that year before commencing his. Harding had an extramarital affair with Carrie Fulton Phillips of Marion, which lasted about fifteen years before ending in Letters from Harding to Phillips were discovered by Harding biographer Francis Russell in the possession of Marion attorney Donald Williamson while Russell was researching his book in Before that, the affair was not generally known.
Williamson donated the letters to the Ohio Historical Society. Some there wanted the letters destroyed to preserve what remained of Harding's reputation. A lawsuit ensued, with Harding's heirs claiming copyright over the letters. The case was ultimately settled in , with the letters donated to the Library of Congress. They were sealed until , but before their opening, historians used copies at Case Western Reserve University and in Russell's papers at the University of Wyoming. Coffey in his review of Harding biographies criticizes him for "obsess[ing] over Harding's sex life".
The allegations of Harding's other known mistress, Nan Britton , long remained uncertain. The book, which was dedicated to "all unwedded mothers" and "their innocent children whose fathers are usually not known to the world", was sold, like pornography, door-to-door wrapped in brown paper. Harding's biographers, writing while Britton's allegations remained uncertain, differed on their truth; Russell believed them unquestioningly  while Dean, having reviewed Britton's papers at UCLA , regarded them as unproven. Upon his death, Harding was deeply mourned.
He was called a man of peace in many European newspapers; American journalists praised him lavishly, with some describing him as having given his life for his country. His associates were stunned by his demise; Daugherty wrote, "I can hardly write about it or allow myself to think about it yet.
Harding, Our After-War President Works written in the late s helped shape Harding's historical reputation: President Coolidge, not wishing to be further associated with his predecessor, refused to dedicate the Harding Tomb. Hoover, Coolidge's successor, was similarly reluctant, but with Coolidge in attendance presided over the dedication in By that time, with the Great Depression in full swing, Hoover was nearly as discredited as Harding. Harding in which he called his subject "an amiable, well-meaning third-rate Mr.
Babbitt , with the equipment of a small-town semi-educated journalist It could not work. It did not work. Today there is considerable evidence refuting their portrayals of Harding. Yet the myth has persisted. The opening of Harding's papers for research in sparked a small spate of biographies, of which the most controversial was Russell's The Shadow of Blooming Grove , which concluded that the rumors of black ancestry the "shadow" of the title deeply affected Harding in his formative years, causing both Harding's conservatism and his desire to get along with everyone.
Coffey faults Russell's methods, and deems the biography "largely critical, though not entirely unsympathetic. Trani and Wilson faulted Murray for "a tendency to go overboard" in trying to connect Harding with the successful policies of cabinet officers, and for asserting, without sufficient evidence, that a new, more assertive Harding had emerged by Later decades saw revisionist books published on Harding. Robert Ferrell's The Strange Deaths of President Harding , according to Coffey, "spends almost the entire work challenging every story about Harding and concludes that almost everything that is read and taught about his subject is wrong.
Harding has traditionally been ranked as one of the worst presidents. In concrete accomplishments, his administration was superior to a sizable portion of those in the nation's history. Trani faults Harding's own lack of depth and decisiveness as bringing about his tarnished legacy. In the American system, there is no such thing as an innocent bystander in the White House. If Harding can rightly claim the achievements of a Hughes in State or a Hoover in Commerce, he must also shoulder responsibility for a Daugherty in Justice and a Fall in Interior.
Especially must he bear the onus of his lack of punitive action against such men as Forbes and Smith. By his inaction, he forfeited whatever chance he had to maintain the integrity of his position and salvage a favorable image for himself and his administration. As it was, the subsequent popular and scholarly negative verdict was inevitable, if not wholly deserved. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Warren Harding disambiguation. United States Senate election in Ohio, Read The Menace and get the dope, Go to the polls and beat the Pope. United States presidential election, America's present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums, but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; not experiment, but equipoise; not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality.
I don't expect Senator Harding to be nominated on the first, second, or third ballots, but I think we can well afford to take chances that about eleven minutes after two o'clock on Friday morning at the convention, when fifteen or twenty men, somewhat weary, are sitting around a table, some one of them will say: Presidency of Warren G. Inauguration of Warren G. Great Railroad Strike of List of federal judges appointed by Warren G.
Harding and Warren G. Harding Supreme Court candidates. After their estrangement, it became necessary. See Dean , p. See Russell , p. The other word that Harding popularized was bloviate , which he said was a somewhat-obsolete term used in Ohio meaning to sit around and talk. After Harding's resurrection of it, it came to mean empty oratory. See Sinclair , p. A Republican governor, Harry L. Davis , appointed Willis, already elected to a full term on Harding's coattails , to serve the remainder of Harding's term. The departure from Haiti was still being planned.
The illustrious life and work of Warren G. Harding, twenty-ninth President of the United States. The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, Retrieved August 13, Retrieved August 18, American National Biography Online. The Economic Consequences of Taxing the Rich. From Columbus's great discovery to the war on terror Penguin, p. University of California Santa Barbara. Retrieved August 3, Retrieved July 18, Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved June 14, Searches run from page by choosing "select research categories" then check "court type" and "nominating president", then select type of court and Warren G.
The History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Retrieved August 17, Retrieved February 28, Today, most historians accept that Harding, 57, died from a heart attack brought on by ample evidence of cardiac problems. Two Collaborators in the Cause of Clean Industry. Harding's sex life, we'd realize he was a pretty good president". Retrieved August 15, Retrieved December 26, Adams, Samuel Hopkins The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Warren Harding Kindle ed.
Henry Holt and Co. The Rise of Warren Gamaliel Harding, — University of Missouri Press. Selling the President, Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. The Harding Era — Harding and his Administration. University of Minnesota Press. The Politics of Normalcy: Dumas Malone , ed. Dictionary of American Biography: Noggle, Burl September Organization of American Historians. The Shadow of Blooming Grove: Harding In His Times.
The Age of Roosevelt: The Crisis of the Old Order, — First Lady Florence Harding: Behind the Tragedy and Controversy. University Press of Kansas. Sinclair, Andrew . The Presidency of Warren G. The Regents Press of Kansas. The Ohio History Press. From Progressivism to Prosperity: