Accessibility Standards: Doors and Entrances (Engineering SoundBites)
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The best projects are where the same group of students stays together the entire semester and works on the same thing. A bonus should be given to groups that stay together. And a bonus should be given when the talents of a student are needed in another project and the student moves to another team for this reason. In some classes, one third of the students drop or stop participating. Under performing groups and groups that have shrunk to one person need to be reassigned.
Hampton Standards Manual | Bilal Farooq - licapedu.tk
Sometimes a project reaches a standstill where nothing more can be done and a new project has to be created. Sometimes materials are ordered for another group of students that continue the project next semester. With this in mind, it is good to have planned boundaries upon which team documentation captures the individual student's weekly work.
A good boundary is four weeks for a class that meets four hours per week. Students mature during these conversations about reforming teams. Make sure the conversations happen. Students will only experience success when they can present This has to be coupled to documentation.
Only allow Presentations from project documentation. The tension of a presentation exposes a student's character or personality. Mature behavior needs to be promoted. Here are some signs of mature behavior:. Typically instructors are trained to focus on the behavior that needs to be changed and let the mature students do what they want.
The idea here is to promote the mature students. Identify strengths as soon as possible. Then give these people tasks that are outside of their normal team. For example, someone figures out how to test if an arduino is working. Send this student to spread this skill into the group mind by jump starting other teams using the arduino. Don't give it a name. Promote by giving them more visible, respectable tasks. Something as silly as "Go listen to Nancy.. The best promotion is letting them choose teammates when it becomes necessary to re-form teams.
Promotion does not have to be graded. The respect created is enough to motivate more mature behavior. Project grading has to be done continuously in a freshman class. This promotes continuous work on projects. Otherwise, nobody works until the last moment and the chances for personal interaction and conversations are greatly diminished. Most of face to face class time should be talking about projects, documenting projects, negotiating who is doing what for the team outside of class time.
The instructor first meets with each project team quietly, sitting down, talking about who is doing what, finding sources of materials, and harmonizing expectations of the wikiversity documentation. Then the students finish the wikiversity documentation, stand up present to the entire class from the wikiversity documentation.
Optimal class size is around Students are going to want to build first. This is not the first step. Gathering materials, touching things happens after design. It happens after Team meetings, individual tasks, and writing in a notebook. Unfortunately student enthusiasm will overwhelm any speed bump between them and a hands on experience. Access to tools and materials has to be through a physical gateway. But this gateway has to be tailored to the individual student.
The context of the project and the "Hands On" starting point of the student will mix to form a gray scale. A universal and fair gateway will cripple a class. So this has to be a private thing between an instructor and each student or group of students. Materials feel like presents. Giving students something to take home inspires them. But only let students with a very good attendance record take things home. Track these things with a sheet of paper students sign. Penalize them through the same system as the school library if not brought back on time.
Introduction to engineering students need a junk pile to get started. But the goal is to design first and then find material that fits the design. So a transition has to occur. This maturation can not happen unless the junk pile is only sufficient to force identification of material that needs to be acquired. This creates the opportunity to order materials and starts the materials double bind because someone has to answer this question: All engineering students need to experience this double blind because of the immature need for "hands-on" experiences.
The grading system should be set up so that a student that shows up to every class, participates in every group meeting, attempts to write in their notebook but contributes nothing gets a C. Here is a point grade system:. Assignments are graded by instructors after the due dates. Weekly memos are graded outside of class time at the beginning of each week before the first class. Notebooks are graded once a week, at any time, upon the initiative of the student during class.
Experiments will begin fall with students grading presentations through clickers and cell phone apps. Projects are graded by instructors looking at proposed project documentation at three or four intervals during the semester. An engineering seminar is where all engineers on campus gather once a week in a big auditorium. The goals of the engineering seminar are:.
Outside of the seminar, students are encouraged to build their social network. Social networks are built by encouraging and rewarding students that participate in hacker space and museum activities, go on tours, find internships, etc. The social networking points are built up by reporting on what happened to the class not seminar in a short presentation. Instructors grade weekly individual memos at the beginning of the week.
Instructors look for a narrative that describes what the assigned task was and what actually happened written from the "I" perspective. They look for words, pictures and videos that can be cut and pasted onto the projects page. Grading individual weekly memos outside of class is fun. It sets the stage for conversations with in the classroom for the entire week. Form means using user space of the instructor and themselves appropriately, linking documents appropriately, using wiki mark up, uploading pictures to wiki commons and video to youtube. A student that merely writes "I did nothing" receives 10 points..
Task points come from doing or justifying why not what was negotiated the previous week. This is judged by reading the weekly memo. It is not influenced by clarifying conversations in class afterwards. Task points range from 0 to Getting 25 tasking points per week means the instructor and student have negotiated tasks without hardly any conversation and the project is being pushed forward.
It usually takes half the semester to get this going with some students. Students have been trained to think "Teams" working on projects do everything together and thus start of with one task for everyone. They will automatically try to negotiate meeting times outside of class where they all get together. Invariably this kind of team work involves one person working, and everyone else watching. Students don't understand that most of the time, engineers work by themselves. Meetings only occur when there is a very clear need. Individual tasks should be negotiated with the instructor. Ideally these meetings are very short.
Ideally the team meets before the instructor and figures out what their tasks are going to be, and then tells the instructor. The instructor ideally accepts these tasks and moves onto the next team.
Engineering and technology learning projects
This falls apart when the teams come up with "we" tasks. It fails apart when students do nothing, trivialize the task or try to spam the process by cut and pasting into the weekly memo from the internet. Some students will confuse the task itself with negotiating the task and merely turn in a written version of the task negotiation.
Other students will just list off new task ideas rather than do anything. Not doing a negotiated task will result in no task points. Ideally students can take equipment home and work on tasks individually. Tasks can also be completed in an engineering lab open for working on projects outside of class time. Students working together should be a last resort. Students working together should be a exception rather than the rule. Students working one on oone with a lab aid, instructor or mentor from outside the school should be encouraged. Push Weekly push is the subjective part of project grading.
Describing this as "Work" creates the expectation that "hard work" even though unsuccessful, will be rewarded. In fact engineers are rewarded for success that can result from a flash of inspiration or years of perspiration.
Describing this as "project work" isn't focused enough. Push points can be associated with documentation and links to deliverables. Typically the deliverables start with pictures, videos, software, and drawings. Push points are not given for fruitless work such as driving to every hardware store in the area searching for a part. Push points are not given for spending 8 hours learning how to edit video Push points are not given unless the students learning curve is turned into a problem of the world that is fixed.
Push points are not given for a weekly narrative that is a litany of what happened. A description of what worked and what didn't work results in no push points. Push points are given for the following reasons:. Push points typically start of 0. They can be bunched up. Three weeks of push can be earned in one week. A 30 point weekly average is needed to get close to the project grading points. At 40 points, the push should be obvious to any engineer. Above 50 points, the success should cause a re-evaluation of the project's problem statement and requirements. This is to be celebrated.
It signifies is that the student has matured to the point that conversations with the instructor about tasks are all that are necessary to produce good engineering activity. This does not mean engineering activity stops. It merely means the instructor can stop grading weekly memos. Ideally students write their weekly memos in their own user space. The instructor creates a "section" or "course" page in their own user space that points to the individual student's weekly memos.
The instructor gives feed back on the student's weekly memo and encourages students to look at this part of each other's feedback.
This is pure fun from an instructors point of view. It sets the stage for the discussions in class in the team context. Class time prioritizes team meetings, presentations and wiki documentation. Actual work on projects should only occur if there is time left. Instructors should also work at pushing projects forward in class. Students that begin idle, non-engineering talk should be focused first by example and then by re-tasking if they can not always find something to push a project forward. Write the rubric, form, drawing, project on even pages, total the number, record in your gradebook, date and sign.
Graphics grading starts off counting the number of arrows connecting descriptions to the drawings. Repeated drawing of the same thing reduces the count. Only differences increase the count. Notebook drawings should never be a substitute for drawing with software. Triplets are graded by counting rants and then multiplying by three. Initiate notebook grading at any time. But leave it the responsibility of students to get their notebook graded.
If students don't get their notebook graded, they loose form points only, not drawing or triplet project points. If nothing is done, no notebook points are awarded. If a student completes one triplet, it is 13 points. This can be done in class. If notebooks are required for entrance into the classroom, then it is easy for students to get 16 points a week. So for basically participating the entire semester, this point category can be maxed out.
The better students are going to max out their notebook points well before the end of the course. It is expected that the notebook will continue to be used, even though it is not graded. Presentations should not be limited to the specific project working on, but could be project proposals or engineering experiences encountered out in the community. Unique presentations to internal organizations such as buildings and grounds or the college board of directors may be rewarded.
External presentations to organizations in the form of papers at engineering conferences, project customers, etc. These are subjective items that an audience could be asked.. Presentations in the seminar and on projects day should have the rubric applied. Presentations should be a reward for good work.
Not every team or every person should expect the opportunity to present. If two point presentations are give and point presentations are allowed in class, then it should be easy for most students to obtain the maximum of presentation points. Good attendance, participation and support of those on the team, along with minimal weekly memos, minimal notebook work and no project push should result in a C.
Project grading is what separates B and A students. If students max out all other point categories, they can get a B without pushing a project forward ever. Every individual on a team gets the same project grade. However, this project grade is a percentage of their weekly push points. The teams project percentage grade starts off with checking to see if all the push point information makes into the project documentation.
Here is the negative rubric. To see the positive, look at the syllabus. Engineering projects are never finished. It is wrong to assume that projects start, go through some process and are finished, then documented. Documentation has to happen continuously. Presentations have to be done with only a 2 minute notice. There are always unrealistic expectations. Part of engineering is breaking the unknown into starting points and doable chunks.
Hopefully it pushes the project forward. One may be merely documenting what is impossible. Expectations are constantly being renegotiated during tasking. Unknown requirements creep into the tasking and then make their way into the problem statement through the back door. The point is that success is not "finishing" a project. Success is presenting something new, wonderful, world changing, world improving at a moments notice. Get in front of the public and wow them. CDIO is described in the wikibook associated with this course. Project pages should be dominated by an accumulated history of all work on the project even by other teams from past semesters.
This is the outline:. The first and the last are the most interesting. The details of what happened are usually found in the middle. Project versus Labs The words project and lab have too many different meanings. Scientific Method Kills Engineering The scientific method is a close cousin when focusing on replication and reverse engineering. Reduce Scaffolding Scaffolding teaching students something so they feel confident moving forward was necessary in the pre-Internet world.
Textbook There is a text associated with these projects in wikibooks. Foster Cohorts Ideally, students know each other.
- Right Ascension (Edge of Apocalypse Book 1);
- Not Alone: Reflections on Faith and Depression.
- Engineering and technology learning projects - Wikiversity.
Instructor Owns The Projects Students want to be told what to do. Documentation Handoff The concept of documentation improvement by forcing hand off of the project from one team to another team of students within the same section does cause conversations about engineering documentation style, clarity, usefulness. The following immature behaviors derail documentation improvement conversations: Find random starting points searching the internet rather than focusing on what has been done Don't absorb all previous work Scaffolding Double Bind Engineers explore the unknown from a scaffolding of previous experiences.
This creates a double bind in their mind: Can not do project because know nothing Can not learn anything without experience Can only gain experience through doing projects Can not learn without a teacher Can not gain experience without demonstration But there is no teacher, no existing project demo Therefore I will fail Maturity is working within this double blind. Instructors can speed up this maturation process with these snippets or sound bytes: First three weeks Don't have students do long introductions.
Wheelchair accessible van
Most engineers select projects based upon how much they can: Reforming teams during Semester The best projects are where the same group of students stays together the entire semester and works on the same thing. Promotion Students will only experience success when they can present Here are some signs of mature behavior: Working independently rather than being told what to do Design first rather than let materials at hand determine design Error on the side of narrowing task focus, rather than broadening, starting all over, changing the agenda.
Classroom Activities Project grading has to be done continuously in a freshman class. Materials and Tools Students are going to want to build first. Materials or Hands On Double Bind Introduction to engineering students need a junk pile to get started. Can not do project with out materials, tools, space. Without materials, tools, space, cannot design. Can not order materials, tools, space without a design. Project will not get done. Students cope with this by Doing nothing and justifying this behavior by claiming the lack of materials Breaking something and waiting replacement Trivializing design process and ordering wrong materials Destroying inventory of glue, batteries, wood Damaging equipment Mix broken, working, used, unknown in the same box Instructors have to watch for and respond to these behaviors by: Chanting, engineers work with no money, duct tape, bubble gum, coat hangers, WD, cardboard, glue gun, needle and thread, paper,..
Why did it break? Why aren't you trying to fix it? What was the failure mode? How does the design match the requirements? Where did this measurement come from? How did you count? What suppliers did you compare?
- The Demon Spell.
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Modifications fall into two categories, the first is where the individual in a wheelchair is the driver and the second is where the individual in a wheelchair is a passenger. There are two types of entry configurations: The entry location impacts wheelchair seating positions, parking options, the ability to accommodate other passengers, and storage availability. Advantages of a side-entry configuration include: Disadvantages of this style are that it requires a handicap parking space or extra room for ramp deployment and that some driveways are not wide enough to accommodate the vehicle.
A rear-entry configuration can be used for attended applications in which the wheelchair occupant is not driving the vehicle but rather riding as a passenger. In addition, mid-passenger seats can be mounted next to the wheelchair position. Ramp based modifications are most commonly performed on minivans.
In rear-entry configuration, the floor is not lowered but rather removed, and a composite or steel tub is inserted. Ramps come in two styles—fold-up or in-floor—and two operating modes—manual or motorized. Fold-up ramps fold in half and stow upright next to the side passenger door in a side-entry configuration or inside the rear access doors in a rear-entry configuration. Fold-up ramps present a lower ramp angle than in-floor ramps; however, in side-entry configurations, they are in the way of the passenger entrance when stowed.
In-floor ramps slide into a pocket underneath the vehicle's floor and are only available for side-entry configurations. Folding ramps are available in manual or motorized versions for both entry configurations. However, in-floor ramps are only available as motorized. In addition, portable ramps are available for use with many vehicles and typically do not require any vehicle modification. Portable wheelchair ramps cost much less both to purchase and to maintain. Since they are not attached to the vehicle, they can be also be used for handicapped access for other applications.
Full size vans require lifts in the form of a platform that can be raised and lowered from inside the vehicle down to the ground outside. There are many types of lifts available on the market. Mono-arm lifts, double-arm lifts and underbody lifts. Double-arm and underbody lifts are best-able for bigger vehicles such as minibuses or buses used for public transport. A mono-arm Lift is preferable for private transport because it can fit smaller vehicles. A mono-arm lift is lighter and smaller than the other ones and it ensures a clear view when it's installed in the back of the car.